Aquatic Plants for Your Koi Pond: Why They’re Important and How to Choose the Right Ones

Adding plant life to a koi pond helps improve pond life for koi, as well as adding beauty to the pond itself.

Koi owners need to make sure they select the right aquatic plants that will harmoniously co-exist with their koi. They also need to ensure that their plant placement is done properly as well as not planting vegetation that will just be eaten by the koi!

 The benefits of including aquatic plants in a koi pond

Aquatic plants are considered an excellent addition to any koi pond. Aquatic plants, in fact, help increase oxygen production in the water, helping to keep the pond properly aerated for koi. Their presence also helps keep the water cool by providing shade to the koi. Additionally, around the spring breeding season submerged plants act as a critical surface onto which female koi attach their fertilized eggs.

 

The presence of plants also prevents the spread of algae from getting out of control. The shade plants provide reduces incoming light into the pond and therefore limits photosynthesis of algae. Their natural ‘filtration’ system prevents blanket weeds (string algae) from forming, mainly through absorbing harmful nitrates that lead to their formation in the first place.

 Tips for introducing koi to plant life

The best way to introduce plants into a koi pond is building a plant shelf. This shelf can be built along the edge of the pond itself. It’s a container where water plants are suitable for planting. It’s a good idea to weigh down the plants with large rocks or stone to form a barrier between the base of the  plants and koi, preventing the risk of the koi eating the plants. Pond owners should be aware that predators like raccoons may use the shelves as a tool for feeding on your koi. For more on how to prevent pond predation see this article.

 

A vegetative filter may be an alternative to introducing aquatic plants to your pond. In this system the plants are grown in a separate containment area that connects to the main pond. The plants here can serve as a natural filtration system as water from the main pond travels in and out of the contained area. This gives you all the filtration benefits of having aquatic plants without the risk of your pond plants being eaten or dislodged.

 

Of course, you can always place aquatic plants directly into the pond itself. There are several options to choose from when deciding on which aquatic plants to put in your pond.   Pond plants can be divided into 3 main categories that are discussed below:

1)      Floating plants

2)      Shallow-water marsh plants

3)      Submerged plants

 

1)      Floating Plants

This type of pond plant can be truly free floating with its main vegetation on the surface while the roots hang down, unattached or there are types where the roots are attached to the muddy bottom. The benefits are that they are easy to care for, they provide plenty of shade for koi and they compete with algae for nutrients as well as blocking light that would have otherwise helped algae to grow, all of which greatly reduces algal growth.  Additionally, they remove a lot of the existing nitrogen and phosphates in the water and thereby do a great job of filtering the water. 

 

Water Hyacinth

Some popular choices for floating plants are water hyacinth.  This species is an annual in the colder regions of North America but a perennial in the warmer parts of the States.  They bear purple or blue flowers and their roots form a compact “nest” beneath them.  These plants do a great job of filtering the water of excess nutrients. 

water hyacinth in koi pond

Water Hyacinth

Water Lettuce

Another free floating plant is water lettuce.  This is more of a tropics/warm climate plant and forms compact leaf clusters on the surface with a compact root mass forming beneath the plant.

 

Water Lettuce in a koi pond

Water Lettuce

 

Water Lilies

When it comes to floating plants with attached roots water lilies are definitely the most popular choice amongst koi pond owners and may be the top choice of any of the aquatic plants.  These plants will do well in just about any region of North America in any season and can be potted and placed at the bottom of the pond.  On the surface, pond owners with water lilies will find a pleasant array of leafy covering and beautiful flowers that will nicely accent any pond.

 

Water lily in a koi pond

Water Lily

 

Lotus

Looking similar to water lilies the lotus is one of the oldest cultivated aquatic plants and make a great addition to any koi pond.  Their leaves are typically very large, as much as 18 inches across which is great for providing shade to your koi in the summer.  Often confused with water lilies the lotus flower is very beautiful and also fragrant.  A word of caution should be noted here as these plants have a substantial growth rate and are best planted in larger koi ponds. 

 

Lotus in koi pond

Lotus

 

Water Poppy

Water poppies produce small oval leaves and yellow flowers and are a great choice for koi ponds.  They grow fairly quickly in summer and add a nice touch of yellow to your pond while filtering the water.

 

water poppy in a koi pond

Water Poppy

 

2)      Shallow Water Marsh Plants

These type of aquatic plants are typically planted on the edge of your koi pond in the shallows.  They are usually very lush and do best in only several inches of water.

 

Umbrella Plants

These tropical region aquatic plants do well in shallow water and for those living in colder climates they need to be brought in during winter.  Umbrella plants, as the name suggests, have umbrella-shaped leaves at the end of long stalks.

 

umbrella plant in a koi pond

Umbrella Plant

 

Water Iris

A favorite amongst koi pond owners the water iris comes in several different species.  They have long, sharp leaves and depending on the species may produce flowers in colors ranging from blue, white or yellow.  These plants are typically planted in pots that are then submerged.  Most iris will do great both in full sun or partial shade which is nice for those with a lot of tree cover nearby.

water iris in a koi pond

Water Iris

Horsetail

This plant produces a slender green stem and is fast growing.  It is best placed on the peripheral parts of your pond and will do great in partial shade.

 

horsetail in a koi pond

Horsetail

 

3)      Submerged Plants

 

Suberged plants are usually grown in pots then placed at the bottom of a koi pond.  Referred to as oxygenating plants this class of aquatic plants do a great job of removing excess nutrients from the water such as nitrites as well as CO2 and add oxygen to the water.  One word of caution though, these plants are often uprooted and eaten by grazing koi so care must be taken to protect them.

 

Fanwort

This submerged plant is a fast growing oxygenator and requires a good deal of light. These plants can grow up to an inch per day and can be propagated using cuttings.

 

fanwort in a koi pond

Fanwort

 

American Waterweed (Elodea)

These plants do well with pond substrates that are silty.  They are completely submerged with the exception of small white flowers that bloom at the surface.  It is great at utilizing the dissolved CO2 in the water and providing cover for fish, especially small koi.  Sometimes the leafy stalks will break off and float away to take root in another part of the pond.  They do very well in milder climates.

 

elodea in a koi pond

Elodea

 

Water Purslane (Ludwigia)

There are many species in the Ludwigia family but Red Ludwigia is a good choice for your pond as this plant grows fast and is a great oxygenator.  It can be planted as a submerged addition to your pond or you can let it float.  They produce small flowers and their leaves are a reddish or purple color.  They typically do well in a lot of direct light.

water purslane in a koi pond

Water Purslane

6 Responses to Aquatic Plants for Your Koi Pond: Why They’re Important and How to Choose the Right Ones

  1. I have a large pond with large koi in it. Every spring it gets a green alge & cant see the koi. We have cleaned all the filters and still isnt getting clear. What is the best thing to do to solve this problem?

    Thank You,

    • Koi-Care staff says:

      This occurrence is typical of spring time and rising water temps and longer sunny days. The condition is sometimes referred to as “green water”.
      Green water which is essentially single celled algae is often associated with spring and summer as that is when ponds begin to experience increases in sunlight and water temps.- both important elements for algal growth. However, another element that aids in algal growth is nutrients such as nitrates. So right off the bat check your water chemistry and make sure you’re not feeding to excess which can result in higher nitrate levels. There are chemicals out there as you’ve discovered that will help to mitigate for green water and those include a products like AlgaeFix and Accu Clear. To really get at the heart of the problem though your water chemistry comes first and after that the next best approach is an in-line UV light as part of your filtration system. UV is a very effective control for algae and doesn’t involve chemicals that have the potential to complicate things.
      Hope this helps

  2. What salinity level do you recommend for koi ponds with plants?
    Thanks- Rodger McPherson

    • Koi-Care staff says:

      Rodger, that answer will depend on what type of plants you have in your pond. Some plants have higher tolerances than others, some have lower. As far as koi tolerance goes here is an excerpt from my site:
      The use of salt in koi ponds has, for long time, been a tried and true method to deal with various water quality and health problems that arise. Some of the benefits of salt is that its a cheap way to keep some disease at bay, control algae and may also lower nitrite toxicity. Additionally, salt plays a part in the osmotic pressure between the fish and the outside aquatic environment. There is a differential between the solute concentration of the fish’s blood and the fresh water that it swims in so the addition of salt actually lowers that concentration differential and makes it easier on the fish by reducing the amount of work its body has to do. A salinity of up to 5 ppt (parts per thousand) or 0.5 % is acceptable.
      -Grant

  3. pondman says:

    I have noticed that my pond as gone green and my filtering system is in good nick ive tryed algo rem and it not done anything what else can I do please let me know thanks

    • Koi-Care staff says:

      I have a new article about algae blooms with a section on green water -here is the link it will have lots of good solutions for your green water issue.

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